The studyworkshop is an interdisciplinary facility of the Institute for Special Education at the University of Würzburg. The propositions of the study-workshop are used by students, who are aiming for Special Education teaching degrees, students, who are studying extra-school Special Education and by other students, who are enlisted in different teaching degrees at the University of Würzburg.
Studyworkshops at universities, providing teacher training, are not a naturalness and stand for a different learning of adults. Studyworkshops at universities in the German-speaking sphere are experiencing a constant upswing since the 1980s.
The propositions of the studyworkshop result from the central challenges for the German educational system:
• the realisation of individualised and differentiated learning propositions for the students
• the realisation of common learning in heterogeneous groups
• in the system of special education needs schools
• in schools with the profile 'inclusion'
The task-fields of the studyworkshop cover four sections:
The Board of Advisers of the Studyworkshop
The board of advisers of the studyworkshop supports the work of the studyworkshop and serves as the fixation of the study-workshop amid the Institute for Special Education. It consists of one representative of each Special Education-Chair, one student-representative and the leader of the studyworkshop.
Conceptual Aims of the Work of the Studyworkshop
A quality improvement of the practice orientation in the teacher training is not achieved through a more of practice, but through a theorybased dealing with topics, which are relevant for classes. The topics are worked out in a concrete reference to the pupils with a concomitant and final reflexion regarding to the preparation of the subject, the means of individualisation and differentiation as well as the common teaching of heterogeneous groups. Through the inclusion of students from different teaching degrees an early transfer of competence is prepared and an understanding for the respective ground of profession develops. This leads to the theory based implementation of the requirements, emerging from heterogeneity and inclusion, in cooperation with different teaching degrees, in the area of practice of inclusion.
For this it needs an enhanced profiling with the subject didactics-objects on the one hand and on the other hand a specific workup of indispensable special education-means. This can lead to a win-win-situation for pupils with special education needs by providing offers with a good subject-matter knowledge. The win-win-situation also applies to pupils without special education needs, as individual initial situations are increasingly regarded and appropriate measures can be taken. The students from various teaching degrees can profit by experiencing an early cooperation and bilateral debates in common planning processes. The project offers for classes result in concepts for lessons, which take the pupils' individual initial situations into consideration and imply didactic materials, developed for children and youths with special education needs. These concepts are implemented in practice on-site.
In the seminars in the studyworkshop special education interfaces with the subject-didactics already. Here, the basis is a theory-based subject-didactic debate on relevant topics for school-practice. These project-topics are dealt with in the sense of the special-education-needs-children' capacity to act regarding to the selected topic on the one hand. On the other hand the topics are presented in such a way, that joint lessons in heterogeneous groups are feasible. By providing project-offers for classes in inclusive settings or special-education institutions a tooth-work of academic teaching/ research and school-practical fields of work is established. The seminar and the belonging school-practical projects are conducted by special-education students and students, who are aiming for other teaching degrees. For this it needs to find out the pupils' special education needs and take them into consideration appropriately during the planning-process. Thereby demands for individualised and differentiated teaching are actually fulfilled while it also contributes to the inclusive character of the lesson in the form of offers for heterogeneous groups as well as in the common learning of common subjects.
Selected Aspects of the Functioning of Studyworkshops at Universities
• designed for adults – transfer into reform oriented learning in schools in the sense of 'an opening of the teaching' (vgl. Pallasch/ Reimers 1990)
• places of open learning-situations – reform supporting elements of the teacher-training, which complement the traditional teaching and are able to influence the connection of theory and practice positively (vgl. Müller-Naendrup 1997)
• balanced out between science, practice and leading person – marked by didactic competences, a reflexive practice-orientation as well as academic and didactic innovation – mediates between didactic-practical, reflexive and science-oriented approaches (vgl. Schubert 2003)
• Knowledge of the importance of an opening of lessons does not necessarily lead to its implementation. Teachers' further education has to let itself in to subjective modification-processes and must support these constructively via workshops, reflexions and exchange during the own discovering learning. As a result, the modification processes become subjectively significant and thus provide direction (vgl. Zocher 2000)
• Researching and biographic learning in the teacher-training can lead to a further professionalisation of the teacher-training and thus create the option of a positive change of the attitude towards the perception of teachers as well as the understanding of teaching and learning and thus towards the future-opening of lessons (vgl. Bolland 2011)
• Sustainable offers via professionalisation, materialisation and institutionalisation – enhancement of students' job-related competences (vgl. Franz 2012)
• Studyworkshop and inclusion: criteria for the functioning of the studyworkshop; line of development of inclusion; common lessons in studyworkshops; common learning of a common object (vgl. Goschler 2012)
Literature and literature-recommendations
o Bolland, Angela (2011): Forschendes und biografisches Lernen. Das Modellprojekt Forschungswerkstatt in der Lehrerbildung. Bad Heilbrunn: Klinkhardt Verlag.
o Franz, Eva-Kristina (2012): Lernwerkstätten an Hochschulen. Orte der gemeinsamen Qualifikation von Studierenden, pädagogischen Fachkräften des Elementarbereichs und Lehrkräften der Primarstufe. Frankfurt/Main: Peter Lang Internationaler Verlag der Wissenschaften.
o Goschler, Walter & Heyne, Thomas (2011): Biologie-Didaktik und sonderpädagogische Förderung - Möglichkeiten der Erkenntnisgewinnung in einem gemeinsamen Unterricht in heterogenen Lerngruppen. In: Ratz, Christoph (Hg.): Unterricht im Förderschwerpunkt geistige Entwicklung - Fachorientierung und Inklusion als didaktische Herausforderungen. Oberhausen: Athena Verlag. S. 191-216.
o Goschler, Walter (2012): Lernwerkstätten und Inklusion. In: Breyer, Cornelius & Fohrer, Günther & Goschler, Walter & Heger, Manuela & Kießling, Christina & Ratz, Christoph (Hg.): Sonderpädagogik und Inklusion. Oberhausen: Athena Verlag. S. 227-241.
o Goschler, Walter (2014): Mobile Sonderpädagogische Dienste: Inklusion durch Kooperation. In: Fischer, Erhard (Hg.): Heilpädagogische Handlungsfelder. Grundwissen für die Praxis. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer. S. 88-122.
o Goschler, Walter (2015): Gemeinsames Lernen in heterogenen Gruppen – Das Pascalsche Dreieck im Spannungsfeld zwischen Individualisierung/Differenzierung und gemeinsamen Lernen. In: Schmude, Corinna/ Wedekind, Hartmut (Hg.): Lernwerkstätten an Hochschulen - Orte einer inklusiven Pädagogik. Klinkhardt-Verlag.
o Müller-Naendrup, Barbara (1997): Lernwerkstätten an Hochschulen. Ein Beitrag zur Reform der Primarstufenlehrerbildung. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Europäischer Verlag der Wissenschaften.